Atum Ra the God of Creation
Atum was the God of Creation. He was the first ever God to exist on Earth and he was born from the Waters of Chaos. He himself created all of the Gods as well as the universe. The name Atum has many spellings, such as Temu, Tem, Atem and Tum, meaning complete or perfection. Many people make the confusion between Atum and Ra, often calling either one Atum Ra. This is only correct in certain circumstances, which I will explain.
He is portrayed as a man with a double crown, that of Upper and Lower Egypt and wearing the royal head-cloth. Sometimes he has the form of the primal serpent, lion, bull, lizard or even a scarab. In the Old Kingdom, Egyptian people believed that Atum lifted the souls of dead kings to the starry heavens.
How did Atum Ra came to be and why the confusion?
During the period of the New Kingdom, the Atum myths merged in the Egyptian pantheon with those of Ra. He was also a solar deity, which can explain the confusion between the two. These two entities joined and became Atum Ra. Because they were both solar deities, people assigned different roles to each of them. Ra is the whole sun, Kephera the rising sun while Atum is the setting sun. Atum Ra refers to the sun as a whole.
Atum travelled through the underworld every night and fought with Apep, the primordial chaos, in order to rise each morning. People also represented Atum as a self-developing scarab. A giant scarab statue that stands by the sacred Lake in Karnak is dedicated to him. Lots of other small bronze coffins with a figure of a fish on them attest to another incarnation of Atum.
The representations of Atum are very rare. However, there are certain depictions of the Pharaoh as Lord of the Two Lands. People also consider these incarnations of Atum. Probably the largest and also rarest statue of Atum is of a group depicting King Horemheb kneeling in front of Atum.