How Atum God Created Everything

How Atum God Created Everything

Atum God was the first and also the most important god in Ancient Egypt.  He was the most popular in the Old Kingdom in Lower Egypt. However, people associated him with the Pharaoh, regardless of region. During the New Kingdom, Atum appears along with the king in the Temple of Amun at Karnak. In later periods, people wore lizards as a token to him.

In the beginning, there was nothing. Then, a mound of earth rose from nothingness and upon it, Atum created himself. He then spat Shu and Tefnut from his mouth. They would get lost in the primordial darkness, therefore Atum sent his eye to look for them. Consider this the precursor to the Eye of Ra. When he found them, he entwined them together.

How Atum God Created Everything

Atum was the father of the gods, creating the first divine couple. All of the other gods come from Shu and Tefnut. Atum god was also the father to all Pharaohs. Lots of Pharaohs used the title ‘son of Atum’ to indicate their power. One can see the close relationship to the king in many rituals as well as the coronation rites. Moreover, a papyrus from the Late period shows that he was of central importance during New Year’s festivals.

How Atum God Created Everything

From New Kingdom onward, he often made an appearance. One could see him writing down royal names on the leaves of the sacred ished tree. In other Lower Egyptian inscriptions, Atum is crowning the Pharaoh. You can see this as the gods bestowing divine power onto the Pharaoh.

Depictions from the tombs of the Valley of the Kings depict Atum as an aged, ram-headed man. He supervises the punishment of evildoers as well as enemies of the sun god. In addition to this, he also repels evil forces in the underworld, such as the serpent Apep. Atum is the one that provides protection to all pure of heart, ensuring a safe protection into the afterlife.

In his netherworld role, he often has the head of a ram. Sometimes he sits on a throne and in others he leans over a staff, stressing his old age. In certain depictions he appears as the primary mound.


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